After oral administration of pentoxifylline is rapidly and almost completely absorbed.
After almost complete absorption of pentoxifylline is metabolized. The absolute bioavailability of the original substance is 19 ± 13%. The main active metabolite is letrozole for fertility has a plasma concentration two times greater than the initial concentration of pentoxifylline.
The half-life of pentoxifylline period after oral administration is 1.6 h.
Pentoxifylline completely metabolized and more than 90 % is excreted through the kidneys in the form of unconjugated water-soluble metabolites. Excretion of metabolites is delayed in patients with impaired renal function.
In patients with impaired liver function the half-life of pentoxifylline is prolonged and absolute bioavailability increases.
Peripheral circulatory disorders of atherosclerotic (eg, intermittent claudication, diabetic angiopathy), trophic disorders (eg, leg sores, gangrene).
Violations of the cerebral circulation (the effects of cerebral arteriosclerosis, such as violation of concentration, dizziness, memory impairment ), ischemic and post stroke state.
circulatory disorders of the retina and choroid, otosclerosis, degenerative changes in the background pathology of vessels of the inner ear and hearing loss.
- with hypersensitivity to pentoxifylline, other methylxanthines or any of the excipients;
- with massive bleeding;
- with extensive hemorrhages in the retina of the eye;
- with bleeding in the brain;
- with acute myocardial infarction;
- under the age of 18 years;
- during pregnancy and lactation.
With caution the drug should be used in patients with:
- severe cardiac arrhythmias letrozole for fertility (fibrillation risk of deterioration);
- hypotension (risk of further reduction in blood pressure, see section “Dosage and Administration”.);
- chronic heart failure;
- gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer:
- impaired renal function (creatinine clearance below 30 ml / min) (risk of accumulation and an increased risk of side effects, see section “Dosage and Administration”.);
- severe liver function impairment (risk of accumulation and an increased risk of side effects, see section “Dosage and Administration”.);
- after recently transferred surgical intervention;
- increased tendency to bleeding, for example, by the use of anticoagulants or blood coagulation system disorders (risk of heavier bleeding).
Regarding bleeding cm. See section “Contraindications”.
Dosage and administration
Dosage is established as a doctor in accordance with the individual characteristics of the patient.
The usual dose is: One tablet of Trental three times a day followed by slow dose escalation to 200 mg 2-3 times a day. The maximum single dose -400 mg. The maximum daily dose – 1200 mg. The drug should be swallowed whole during or immediately after a meal, drinking plenty of pods.
In patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance below 30 ml / min) the dosage can be reduced to 1-2 tablets a day.
Dose reduction, taking letrozole for fertility into account the individual portability, it is necessary in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Treatment can be initiated with low doses in patients with low blood pressure, as well as in patients who are at risk due to a possible reduction in blood pressure (the Nazis with severe coronary artery disease or the odes and us cally significant stenoses and cerebral vessels). 13 of these cases, the dose can be increased only gradually.
When Trental is used the following side effects may occur at high doses: the part of the nervous system : headache, dizziness, anxiety, sleep disorders, convulsions, with Parties of the skin and subcutaneous tissue : facial flushing, “tides” of blood to the skin of the face and upper chest, swelling, increased nail fragility, of the digestive system : dry mouth, anorexia, intestinal, feeling of pressure and fullness in the stomach, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; with cardiovascular : tachycardia, arrhythmia, false angina, the progression of angina, lower blood pressure; from the hemostatic system and of hematopoiesis : leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, bleeding from vessels in the skin, mucous membranes, stomach, intestines, gipofibrinogenemia; with the senses : visual disturbances, skatoma; allergic letrozole for fertility reactions : itching, redness of the skin, urticaria, angioedema, anaphylactic shock. cases of aseptic meningitis is very rare, in hepatic cholestasis, and increased activity of “liver” transaminases, alkaline phosphatase.